Monday, 16 October 2017
Editor Choice Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infection (Causes, Symptoms and Treatment)

Urinary Tract Infection (Causes, Symptoms and Treatment)

 

Urinary tract infection is more common in females than males due to short wider Urethera (easier infection) and pregnancy (urinary stasis).

Urinary tract consist of two kidneys, two ureters ,the urinary bladder and Urethera. So, Infection of the kidney is called pyelonephritis, the bladder infection = cystitis and Urethera infection is called Urethritis.

Here we will talk about causes, symptoms and treatment of urinary tract infection.

 

Causes of Urinary Tract Infection

 

Predisposing Factors:

 

  • Low immunity as in case of diabetes mellitus, AIDS, immunosuppressive therapy … etc.
  • Urinary tract obstruction (by stones, tumors, strictures … etc) which results in urinary stasis (good media for bacterial growth).

 

Causative Organisms:

 

E.coli (the main causative organism staphylococci, streptococci, gonococci … etc.

 

Routes of Infection:

 

  • The urethral orifice is located near to the anus so the intestinal bacteria (E.coli) may reach the urinary system (especially in case of bad hygiene).
  • Direct infection from other infected part of the urinary system, for example, kidney infection may result in bladder infection (descending infection).
  • Lymphatic spread from pelvic organs.
  • Blood spread from distant infections, for example, of lungs and upper respiratory tract.

 

Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection

 

  • Frequency.
  • Dysuria (burning micturition).
  • Urgency.
  • Pyuria (presence of pus in urine).
  • May be accompanied with hematuria (presence of blood in urine).
  • Pain in your back (especially in case of kidney infection) or in lower abdomen (in case of bladder infection).
  • Fever (this sign means the infection has reached your kidney).

 

Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection

 

A- General Measures:

 

  • Culture sensitivity test.
  • Alteration of urinay PH which can play a role in:

 

  1. Increase efficacy of antimicrobials as acidification of urine by ammonium chloride, ascorbic acid or methionine can increase activity of penicillins, tetracyclines, methenamine. on the other hand, alkalinization of urine by Na or K acetate, bicarbonate, citrate & lactate can increase activity of Sulpha, Streptomycin, Gentamicin & Erythromycin.
  2. Decrease growth of some organisms .e.g : alkaline urine decrease the growth of E.coli.
  3. Alkalinization of urine can relief dysuria.

 

B- Drug therapy of urinary tract infection:

 

  • For examples, ciprofloxacin (cipro), levofloxacin (furadantin, macrobid, macrodantin) & sulphamethoxazole with trimethoprim (bactrim).
  • These medicines act by killing the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection.
  • The aim of use of antibiotics is to prevent the complications of urinary tract infection such as kidney damage which may end fatally by renal failure.
  • Antibiotics may also be prescribed by doctors to as prophylactic therapy to prevent urinary tract infection as in:

 

  1. Women who have repeated attacks of urinary tract infection.
  2. During pregnancy.
  3. People with spinal cord injuries that affect urination.
  4. Surgeries which involve the urinary system.

 

**Finally, our advice:

 

  • Is to take the full course of the antibiotics as the doctor prescribed and do not leave the medicine.
  • Do not let the medicine, once you feel better as in this case you will suffer from recurrent urinary tract infection!

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